The University of Arizona

Richard Snodgrass



Publications

Richard Snodgrass has written or edited six books, as well as journal and conference articles on many aspects of temporal databases: conceptual design (4 papers), logical design (16 refereed + 1 non-refereed paper), physical design (4 papers), query language design (11 + 11 papers + 13 ISO and 2 ANSI proposals), temporal algebras (3 papers), implementation of temporal databases (22 + 1 papers), temporal XML (8 + 1 papers), and temporal databases in general (12 + 5 papers + 11 articles plus many encyclopedia entries).

He is also working on auditing, compliance, and forensic analysis (8 + 2 papers), DBMS optimization (3 papers), and ergalics (3 + 3 papers), and has done work in monitoring distributed systems (4 + 2 papers), software development environments (7 + 2 papers), scholarly publication (12 unrefereed papers), and other topics (2 + 15 papers).

When allowed (for the vast majority of these papers), the PDF of the paper is provided; see the copyright notices.

See also Rick's ACM author page, his DBLP entry, his citation page at Google Scholar, and his Microsoft Academic Search author page.


Books

Developing Time-Oriented Database Applications in SQL, Richard T. Snodgrass, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., San Francisco, July, 1999, 504+xxiii pages, ISBN 1-55860-436-7. The PDF of this book is here (5MB) (which looks a little fuzzy but prints fine, except for pages 30–31, which are here) and its associated CD-ROM in zip (59MB) or gzipped tar (57MB) formats.

Advanced Database Systems, Carlo Zaniolo, Stefano Ceri, Christos Faloutsos, Richard T. Snodgrass, V. S. Subrahmanian, and Roberto Zicari, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., San Francisco, CA, May, 1997, 574+xvii pages.

The TSQL2 Temporal Query Language, The TSQL2 Language Design Committee consisted of Richard T. Snodgrass (chair), Ilsoo Ahn, Gad Ariav, Don Batory, James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Ramez Elmasri, Fabio Grandi, Christian S. Jensen, Wolfgang Käfer, Nick Kline, Krishna Kulkarni, T. Y. Cliff Leung, Nikos Lorentzos, John F. Roddick, Arie Segev, Michael D. Soo and Suryanarayana M. Sripada, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995, 674+xxiv pages, ISBN 0-8053-2413-5, QA76.9.D3T4125. The PDF of this book is available on the SIGMOD Anthology DVD Silver Edition, available for $25 for SIGMOD members at the ACM Store.

Temporal Databases: Theory, Design, and Implementation, Abdullah Tansel, James Clifford, Shashi Gadia, Sushil Jajodia, Arie Segev, and Richard T. Snodgrass (editors), Database Systems and Applications Series, Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., Redwood City, CA, March 1993, 633+xx pages, ISBN 0-8053-2413-5, QA76.9.D3T4125.

The Interface Description Language: Definition and Use, Richard T. Snodgrass with contributions from Karen P. Shannon, Jerry S. Kickenson, Mike A. Shapiro, Dean D. Throop, William B. Warren, David A. Lamb, John R. Nestor, and William A. Wulf, Principles of Computer Science Series, Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD, 1989, 615+xv pages.

Database Engineering, Vol. 7, Won Kim, Dina Bitton, Roger King, Meral Özsoyolu, and Richard T. Snodgrass (editors), IEEE Computer Science Press, 1989, 210+vi pages. (This is a collection of four issues of the Data Engineering bulletin published by the IEEE Technical Committee on Data Engineering.)


General Topics in Temporal Databases

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass (editors), "Temporal Database Entries for the Springer Encyclopedia of Database Systems," TimeCenter TR-90, May 2008, 337+v pages (pdf). This technical report consists of 81 entries from the Encyclopedia of Database Systems, Editors-in-chief: Liu, Ling; Özsu, M. Tamer, Springer, 2009. (Springer book + online access) The Encyclopedia is a multi-volume, comprehensive, and authoritative reference on databases, data management, and database systems, available in both print and online formats.

Bedirhan Urgun, Curtis E. Dyreson, Richard T. Snodgrass, Jessica K. Miller, Nick Kline, Michael D. Soo, and Christian S. Jensen, "Integrating Multiple Calendars using τZaman," Software—Practice and Experience 37(3):267–308, 2007. (pdf This is a preprint of an article in Software—Practice and Experience Copyright © 2007 Wiley)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Data Management," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 11(1):36–44, January/February 1999. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Databases," in Encyclopedia of Distributed Computing, Partha Dasgupta and Joseph E. Urban (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, 5 pages. (pdf)

Claudio Bettini, Curtis E. Dyreson, William S. Evans, Richard T. Snodgrass and X. Sean Wang, "A Glossary of Time Granularity Concepts," in Temporal Databases: Research and Practice, O. Etzion, S. Jajodia, and S. Sripada (eds.), LNCS 1399, Springer, pp. 406–413, 1998. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Curtis E. Dyreson (eds), Michael Böhlen, James Clifford, Ramez Elmasri, Shashi K. Gadia, Fabio Grandi, Patrick Hayes, Sushil Jajodia, W. Käfer, Nick R. Kline, Nikos Lorentzos, Yannis Mitsopoulos, Angelo Montanari, Daniel Nonen, Elisa Peressi, Barbara Pernici, John F. Roddick, Nandlal L. Sarda, Maria R. Scalas, Arie Segev, Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael D. Soo, Abdullah Tansel, Paolo Tiberio and Gio Wiederhold, "A Consensus Glossary of Temporal Database Concepts—February 1998 Version" in Temporal Databases: Research and Practice, O. Etzion, S. Jajodia, and S. Sripada (eds.), LNCS 1399, Springer-Verlag, pp. 367–405, 1998. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Arie Segev, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Report on The 1995 International Workshop on Temporal Databases," ACM SIGMOD Record 24(4):46–52, December 1995.(pdf)

James Clifford, Christian S. Jensen, Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael H. Boehlen, H. Dewan, and D. Schmidt, "Panel: The State-of-the-Art in Temporal Data Management: Perspectives from the Research and Financial Applications Communities, Workshops in Computing, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Temporal Databases: Recent Advances in Temporal Databases, J. Clifford and A. Tuzhilin (eds.), Springer-Verlag New York, pages 356–357, 1995. (pdf) ACM DL

Gultekin Özsoyoglu and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal and Real-Time Databases: A Survey," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 7(4)513–532, August 1995. (pdf)

Niki Pissinou, Richard T. Snodgrass, Ramez Elmasri, Inderpal S. Mumick, M. Tamer Özsu, Barbara Pernici, Arie Segev, and Babis Theodoulidis, "Towards an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases: Report of an Invitational ARPA/NSF Workshop," ACM SIGMOD Record 23(1):35–51, March 1994.(pdf)

Christian S. Jensen, James Clifford, Ramez Elmasri, Shashi K. Gadia, Pat Hayes, and Sushil Jajodia (ed), Curtis E. Dyreson, Fabio Grandi, Wolfgang Käfer, Nick R. Kline, Nikos Lorentzos, Yannis Mitsopoulos, Angelo Montanari, Daniel Nonen, Elisa Peressi, Barbara Pernici, John F. Roddick, Nandlal L. Sarda, Maria R. Scalas, Arie Segev, Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael D. Soo, Abdullah Tansel, Paolo Tiberio and Gio Wiederhold, "A Consensus Glossary of Temporal Database Concepts" ACM SIGMOD Record 23(1):52–64, March 1994. (pdf)

K. K. Al-Tara, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Michael D. Soo, "A Bibliography on Spatio-temporal Databases," International Journal of Geographic Information Sciences 8(1), January–February 1994, pp. 95–103, Taylor.

Christian S. Jensen (editor), James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Shashi K. Gadia, Fabio Grandi, Sushil Jajodia, Nick R. Kline, Angelo Montanari, Daniel Nonen, Elisa Peressi, Barbara Pernici, John F. Roddick, Nandlal L. Sarda, Maria R. Scalas, Arie Segev, Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael D. Soo, Abdullah Tansel, and Paolo Tiberio, "Proposed Temporal Database Concepts - May 1993," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases, Arlington, TX, pp. A-1–A-24, June 14–16, 1993. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen (editor), James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Shashi K. Gadia, Fabio Grandi, Sushil Jajodia, Nick R. Kline, Angelo Montanari, Daniel Nonen, Elisa Peressi, Barbara Pernici, John F. Roddick, Nandlal L. Sarda, Maria R. Scalas, Arie Segev, Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael D. Soo, Abdullah Tansel, and Paolo Tiberio, "Addendum to 'Proposed Temporal Database Concepts – May 1993'," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases, Arlington, TX, pp. A-25-A–29, June 14–16, 1993. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Databases," in Theory and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space Springer, Pisa, Italy, September 1992, LNCS 639, A. U. Frank, I. Campari, and U. Formentini, eds, pp. 22–64. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Databases: Status and Research Directions," ACM SIGMOD Record, special issue on Directions for Future Database Research, W. Kim, ed., 19(4):83–89, December 1990. (pdf)


Conceptual Design of Temporal Databases

Vijay Khatri, Sudha Ram and Richard T. Snodgrass, "On Augmenting Database Design-Support Environments to Capture the Geo-Spatio-Temporal Data Semantics," Information Systems 31(2):98–133, April, 2006. DOI:10.1016/j.is.2004.10.001 (pdf)

Vijay Khatri, S. Ram, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Augmenting a Conceptual Model with Geospatiotemporal Annotations," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 16(11):1324–1338, November 2004. (pdf)

Vijay Khatri, S. Ram, Richard T. Snodgrass and G. M. O'Brien, "Supporting User-defined Granularities and Indeterminacy in a Spatiotemporal Conceptual Data Model," Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Spatial and Temporal Granularity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 36(1–2): 195–232 (2002), Copyright Springer Netherlands. (pdf)

Ram, S., Richard T. Snodgrass, V. Khatri and Y. Hwang, "DISTIL: A Design Support Environment for Conceptual Modeling of Spatiotemporal Requirements," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER2001), Yokohama, Japan, November 2001, pp. 70–83. (pdf)

See also the series of articles in Database Programming and Design.


Logical Design of Temporal Databases

Luca Anselma, Paolo Terenziani, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Valid-Time Indeterminacy in Temporal Relational Databases: Semantics and Representations", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 24(12):2880--2994, December 2013. (pdf)

Vijay Khatri, Sudha Ram, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Paolo Terenziani, "Capturing Telic-Atelic Temporal Data Semantics: Generalizing Conventional Conceptual Models," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 26(3):528--548, March 2014. (pdf)

Paolo Terenziani, Richard T. Snodgrass, Alessio Bottrighi, Mauro Torchio, and Gianpaolo Molino, "Extending Temporal Databases to Deal with Telic/Atelic Medical Data," Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 39(2):113–126, 2007. DOI:10.1016/j.artmed.2006.08.003 (pdf)

Paolo Terenziani, Richard T. Snodgrass, Alessio Bottrighi, Mauro Torchio, and Gianpaolo Molino, "Extending Temporal Databases to Deal with Telic/atelic Medical Data," in Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME), LNCS 3581, pp. 58–66, Springer, 2005, DOI:10.1007/11527770_9. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Paolo Terenziani and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Reconciling Point-Based and Interval-Based Semantics in Temporal Databases: A Treatment of the Telic/Atelic Distinction,," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 16(5):540–551, May 2004. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporally Enhanced Database Design," in Object-Oriented Data Modeling, M. P. Papazoglou, S. Spaccapietra, and Z. Tari (eds), MIT Press, pp. 163–194, 2000, ISBN 0-262-16189-3.

Christian S. Jensen, Richard T. Snodgrass and M. D. Soo, "Extending Existing Dependency Theory to Temporal Databases," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 8(4), August 1996, pp. 563–582. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Semantics of Time-Varying Information," Invited Project Review Information Systems 21(4), June 1996, pp. 311–352. DOI:10.1016/0306-4379(96)00017-8 (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Semantics of Time-Varying Attributes and Their Use for Temporal Database Design," In Proceedings of the Object-Oriented and Entity Relationship Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, December 1995, pp. 366–377. LNCS 1021, Springer. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen, Michael D. Soo and Richard T. Snodgrass,"Unifying Temporal Data Models via a Conceptual Model," Information Systems 19(7), December 1994, pp. 513–547. DOI:10.1016/0306-4379(94)90013-2 (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Specialization and Generalization," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 6(6), December 1994, pp. 954–974. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Three Proposals for a Third-Generation Temporal Data Model," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases, Arlington, TX, pp. T-1–T10, June 14–16, 1993. ( (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen, Michael D. Soo, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Unification of Temporal Data Models," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'93), Vienna, April 1993, pp. 262–271. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Specialized Temporal Relations," In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'92), Phoenix, AZ, February 1992, pp. 594–603. (pdf)

Ilsoo Ahn and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Partitioned Storage Structures for Temporal Databases," Information Systems 13(4), December 1988, pp. 369–391. DOI:10.1016/0306-4379(88)90004-X

Richard T. Snodgrass and Ilsoo Ahn, "Temporal Databases," IEEE Computer 19(9), September, 1986, pp. 35–42. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass and Ilsoo Ahn, "A Taxonomy of Time in Databases," In Proceedings of the ACM-SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Austin, TX, May 1985, pp. 236–246. (pdf) "Reprinted in Tutorial: Database Management, by J. A. Larson, Computer Society Press, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. 398–408, and in Tutorial: Parallel Architectures for Database Systems by A. R. Hurson, L. L. Miller, and S. H. Pakzad, Computer Society Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 443–453.


Physical Design of Temporal Databases

Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Timestamp Semantics and Representation," Information Systems 18(3), September 1993, pp. 143–166. DOI:10.1016/0306-4379(93)90034-X (pdf)

Suchen Hsu and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Optimal Block Size for Set-valued Attributes," Information Processing Letters 45(3), March 1993, pp. 153–158. DOI:10.1016/0020-0190(93)90018-5 (pdf)

Ilsoo Ahn and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Performance Analysis of Temporal Queries," Information Sciences: An International Journal 49(1), October 1989, pp. 103–146. DOI:10.1016/0020-0255(89)90025-X

Ilsoo Ahn and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Performance Evaluation of a Temporal Database Management System," In Proceedings of the ACM-SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Washington, D.C., May 1986, pp. 96–107. (pdf)


Design of Query Languages for Temporal Databases

Richard T. Snodgrass, Dengfeng Gao, Rui Zhang, and Stephen W. Thomas, "Temporal Support for Persistent Stored Modules," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Database Engineering, Washington, D.C, pp. 114-125, April 2012. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Keep Track,'' Teradata Magazine, Volume 10, Q4, October 24, 2010, 3 pages. (online article, pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Case Study of Temporal Data," Teradata White Paper, October 24, 2010, 21 pages. (pdf)

Michael Böhlen, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Statement Modifiers," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 25(4):407–456. December 2000. (pdf)

Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Supporting Valid-time Indeterminacy," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 23(1), March 1998, pp. 1–57. (pdf, review)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael H. Böhlen, Christian S. Jensen, and Andreas Steiner, "Transitioning Temporal Support in TSQL2 to SQL3," in Temporal Databases: Research and Practice, O. Etzion, S. Jajodia, and S. Sripada (eds.), Springer, LNCS 1399, pp. 150––194, 1998. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Vassilis J. Tsotras, Christian S. Jensen,and Richard T. Snodgrass, "An Extensible Notation for Spatiotemporal Index Queries," SIGMOD Record 27(1): 47-53 (1998). (pdf)

James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Tomas Isakowitz, Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "On the Semantics of `Now' in Databases," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 22(2), June 1997, pp. 171–214. (pdf)

John Bair, Michael H. Böhlen, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Notions of Upward Compatibility of Temporal Query Languages," Business Informatics (Wirtschafts Informatik) 39(1), February 1997, pp. 25–34, Springer. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael H. Boehlen, Christian S. Jensen and Andreas Steiner, "Adding Transaction Time to SQL/Temporal," change proposal, ANSI X3H2-96-502r2, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/ WG3 DBL MAD-147r2, November 1996, 47 pages. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Michael H. Boehlen, Christian S. Jensen and Andreas Steiner, "Adding Valid Time to SQL/Temporal," change proposal, ANSI X3H2-96-501r2, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/ WG3 DBL MAD-146r2, November 1996, 77 pages. (pdf)

Michael H. Böhlen, Jan Chomicki, Richard T. Snodgrass, and David Toman,, "Querying TSQL2 Databases with Temporal Logic," in Proceedings of Extending Data Base Technology (EDBT'96), France, March 1996, 16 pages. LNCS 1057, Springer. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Michael H. Böhlen, Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Evaluating the Completeness of TSQL2," In Proceedings of the VLDB International Workshop on Temporal Databases (VLDB'95) Zürich, Switzerland, September, in Recent Advances in Temporal Databases J. Clifford and A. Tuzhilin (eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995, pp. 153–174. (pdf) ACM DL

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Object Oriented Databases: A Critical Comparison," chapter 19 in Modern Database Systems: The Object Model, Interoperability and Beyond, W. Kim, editor, Addison-Wesley/ACM Press, 1995, pp. 386–408. (pdf)

Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "The TSQL2 Baseline Clock," in Encyclopedia of Microcomputers, Vol. 19, A. Kent and J. G. Williams (eds), pp. 49–68, 1996.

Richard T. Snodgrass, Ilsoo Ahn, Gad Ariav, Don Batory, James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Ramez Elmasri, Fabio Grandi, Christian S. Jensen, Wolfgang Käfer, Nick Kline, Krishna Kulkarni, T. Y. Cliff Leung, Nikos Lorentzos, John F. Roddick, Arie Segev, Michael D. Soo and Suryanarayana M. Sripada, "A TSQL2 Tutorial," in ACM SIGMOD Record 23(3):27–33, September 1994. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Ilsoo Ahn, Gadi Ariav, Don S. Batory, James Clifford, Curtis E. Dyreson, Ramez Elmasri, Fabio Grandi, Christian S. Jensen, W. Käfer, Nick Kline, Krishna Kulkarni, T. Y. Clement Leung, Nikos Lorentzos, John F. Roddick, Arie Segev, Michael D. Soo, and Suri M. Sripada, "TSQL2 Language Specification," SIGMOD Record 23(1):65–86, March 1994. (pdf)

Christian S. Jensen (editor), James Clifford, Shashi K. Gadia, Fabio Grandi, Patrick P. Kalua, Angelo Montanari, Sunil S. Nair, Elisa Peressi, Barbara Pernici, Edward L. Robertson, John F. Roddick, Nandlal L. Sarda, Maria R. Scalas, Arie Segev, Richard T. Snodgrass, Abdullah Tansel, Paolo Tiberio, Alexander Tuzhilin, and Gene T. J. Wuu, "The TSQL2 Benchmark," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases, Arlington, TX, pp. QQ-1-QQ-28, June 14-16, 1993. (pdf)

Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Valid–time Indeterminacy," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'93), Vienna, April 1993, pp. 335–343. (pdf) Awarded best paper.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "An Overview of TQuel," Chapter 6 in Temporal Databases: Theory, Design, and Implementation, A. Tansel, J. Clifford, S. Gadia, S. Jajodia, A. Segev, and Richard T. Snodgrass, editors, Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., 1993, pp. 141–182.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "The Temporal Query Language TQuel," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 12(2), June 1987, pp. 247–298. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "The Temporal Query Language TQuel," In Proceedings of the ACM SIGAct-SIGMOD Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS'84), Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, April 1984, pp. 204–213. (pdf) Reprinted in Tutorial: Parallel Architectures for Database Systems by A. R. Hurson, L. L. Miller, and S. H. Pakzad, Computer Science Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, pp. 454–463.


Algebras for Temporal Databases

Edward McKenzie and Richard T. Snodgrass, "An Evaluation of Relational Algebras Incorporating the Time Dimension in Databases," ACM Computing Surveys 23(4), December 1991, pp. 501–543. (pdf)

Edward McKenzie and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Schema Evolution and the Relational Algebra," Information Systems 15(2), June 1990, pp. 207–232. DOI:10.1016/0306-4379(90)90036-O (pdf)

Edward McKenzie and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Extending the Relational Algebra To Support Transaction Time," In Proceedings of the ACM-SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, San Francisco, CA, May 1987, pp. 467–478. (pdf)


Implementation of Temporal Databases

Sabah Currim, Richard T. Snodgrass, Young-Kyoon Suh, Rui Zhang, Matthew Wong, and Cheng Yi, "DBMS Metrology: Measuring Query Time," Proceedings of the SIGMOD International Conference, pp. 421-432, New York City, June 2013. (pdf).

Stephen W. Thomas, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Rui Zhang, "Benchmark Frameworks and τBench," Software---Practice and Experience 44(9):1047--1075, April 2014. (pdf)

Stephen W. Thomas, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Rui Zhang, τBench: Extending XBench with Time, TimeCenter TR-92, revised March 2013, 62+vi pages. (pdf)

David Lomet, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Christian S. Jensen, "Using the Lock Manager to Choose Timestamps," in Proceedings of the Ninth International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium (IDEAS 2005), pp. 357–368, Montreal, Canada, July 2005. (pdf)

Dengfeng Gao, Christian S. Jensen, Richard T. Snodgrass and Michael Soo, "Join Operations in Temporal Databases," International Journal on Very Large Databases 14(1):2–29, March 2005. (pdf)

Ines F. Vega Löpez, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Bongki Moon, "Spatiotemporal Aggregate Computation: A Survey," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 17(2):271–286, February 2005. (pdf)

Kristian Torp, Christian S. Jensen and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases," Information Systems 29(8):653–683, December 2004. DOI:10.1016/S0306-4379(03)00047-4 (pdf)

Dengfeng Gao, J. A. G. Gendrano, Bongki Moon, Richard T. Snodgrass, Minseok Park, Bruce C. Huang, and Jim M. Rodrigue, "Main Memory-Based Algorithms for Efficient Parallel Aggregation for Temporal Databases," Distributed and Parallel Databases Journal 16(2):123–163, September 2004. (pdf)

Wei Li, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Dengfeng Gao, "Skew Handling Techniques in Sort-Merge Join," in the Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, June 2002, pp. 169–180. (pdf)

Joseph Dunn, Sean Davey, Ann Descour and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Sequenced Subset Operators: Definition and Implementation," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE2002), February 2002, pp. 81–92. (pdf)

Giedrius Slivinskas, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Adaptable Query Optimization and Evaluation in Temporal Middleware," In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, June 2001, pp. 127–138. (pdf)

Wei Li, Richard T. Snodgrass, S. Deng, Vivek K. Gattu, and A. Kasthurirangan,, "Efficient Sequenced Temporal Integrity Checking," In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 131–140, Heidelberg, Germany, April 2001. (pdf)

Giedrius Slivinskas, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Foundation for Conventional and Temporal Query Optimization Addressing Duplicates and Ordering," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 13(1):21–49, January/February 2001. (pdf)

Kristian Torp, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Effective Timestamping in Databases," International Journal on Very Large Databases 8(3+4), February 2000, pp. 267–288. (pdf)

Giedrius Slivinskas, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Query Plans for Conventional and Temporal Queries Involving Duplicates and Ordering," In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE2000), San Diego, February 2000, pp. 547–558. (pdf)

Curtis E. Dyreson, William Evans, Hong Lin, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Efficiently Supporting Temporal Granularities," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 12(4): 568–587, July/August 2000. (pdf)

José A. G. Gendrano, Bruce C. Huang, Jim M. Rodrigue, Bongki Moon and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Parallel Algorithms for Computing Temporal Aggregates," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'99), pages 418–427, March 1999. (pdf)

Kristian Torp, Christian S. Jensen, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Stratum Approaches to Temporal DBMS Implementation," In Proceedings of the International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium, Cardiff, Wales, U.K., July 8–10, 1998, pp. 4–13. (pdf)

Michael H. Böhlen, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Michael D. Soo, "Coalescing in Temporal Databases," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Databases (VLDB'96), pp. 180–191, Mumbai (Bombay) India, September 1996. (pdf)

Nick Kline and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Computing Temporal Aggregates," In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'95), pp 222–231, Taipei, Taiwan, March 1995. (pdf)

Michael D. Soo, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Christian S. Jensen, "Efficient Evaluation of the Valid-Time Natural Join," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE'94), Houston, TX, February 1994, pp. 282–292. (pdf)

Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Efficient Timestamp Input and Output," Software—Practice and Experience 24(1), January 1994, pp. 89–109, Wiley. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Santiago Gomez and Edward McKenzie, "Aggregates in the Temporal Query Language TQuel," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 5(5), October, 1993, pp. 826–842. (pdf)


Temporal XML

Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, Curtis Dyreson, Richard T. Snodgrass, Stephen Thomas and Rui Zhang, "Adding Temporal Constraints to XML Schema," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 24(8):1361--1377, August 2012. (pdf, appendix)

Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, Curtis E. Dyreson, Shailesh Joshi, Richard T. Snodgrass, Stephen W. Thomas, and Eric Roeder," τXschema: Support for Data- and Schema-Versioned XML Documents," TempIS TR-91, September 2009, 264+xiv pages. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Curtis E. Dyreson, Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, and Shailesh Joshi, "Validating Quicksand: Schema Versioning in τXSchema, Data Knowledge and Engineering 65(2):223–242, 2007. DOI:10.1016/j.datak.2007.09.003 (Elsevier link) (pdf)

Curtis Dyreson, Richard T. Snodgrass, Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, and Shailesh Joshi, "Weaving Temporal and Reliability Aspects into a Schema Tapestry," Data and Knowledge Engineering 63(3):726–747, 2007. DOI:10.1016/j.datak.2007.04.006 (Elsevier link) (pdf)

Dyreson, Curtis, Richard T. Snodgrass, Faiz Currim, and Sabah Currim,, "Schema-mediated Exchange of Temporal XML Data," in Proceedings of the Entity Relationship Conference (ER2006), LNCS 4215, Springer, pp. 212–227, Tucson, November, 2006. (DOI) (LNCS online) (pdf)

Curtis Dyreson, Richard T. Snodgrass, Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, and Shailesh Joshi, "Validating Quicksand: Schema Versioning in tXSchema," in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on XML Schema and Data Management (XSDM 2006), Atlanta, Georgia, April, 2006, 10 pages. (pdf)

S. Zhang, Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Schema-less, Semantics-Based Change Detection for XML Documents," In Proceedings of WISE (Web-based Information Systems Engineering), Brisbane, Australia, Springer, LNCS 3306, November 2004, 12 pages. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Faiz Currim, Sabah Currim, Curtis E. Dyreson and Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Tale of Two Schemas: Creating a Temporal XML Schema from a Snapshot Schema with τXSchema," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Extending Data Base Technology, Crete, Springer, LNCS 2992, pp. 348–365, 2004. (LNCS online) (pdf)

Dengfeng Gao and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Slicing in the Evaluation of XML Queries," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Databases, Berlin, September 2003. (pdf)


Auditing, Compliance, and Forensic Analysis

Kyriacos Pavlou and Richard T.Snodgrass. "Generalizing Database Forensics," ACM TODS, volume 38, 42+7 pages, 2013.

Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass. "Temporal Implications of Database Information Accountability," International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME), pp. 125-132,September 2012. (pdf)

Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass. "Achieving Database Information Accountability in the Cloud," Short paper, Data Management in the Cloud (DMC) Workshop, pp. 147-150, April 2012. (pdf)

Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass. "Dragoon: An Information Accountability System for High-Performance Databases," Demonstration,
International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), pp. 1329-1332, April 2012. (pdf, poster)

Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass, "The Tiled Bitmap Forensic Analysis Algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 22(4):590–601, April 2010. (pdf)

Soumyadeb Mitra, Marianne Winslett, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Shashank Yaduvanshi, "An Architecture for Regulatory Compliant Database Management," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), pp. 162–173, Shanghai, China, 2009. (pdf)

Kyri Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 33(4), December, 2008, 45+26 pages. (pdf)

Kyri Pavlou and Richard. T. Snodgrass, "The Pre-images of Bitwise AND Functions in Forensic Analysis,'' TimeCenter TR 87, October, 2006. [.pdf]

Kyri Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering," in Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD), pages 109–120, Chicago, June, 2006. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, Stanley Yao and Christian Collberg, "Tamper Detection in Audit Logs," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Databases, Toronto, Canada, August–September 2004, pp. 504–515. (pdf)


DBMS Micro-Specialization

Rui Zhang, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Saumya Debray, "Application of Micro-Specialization to Query Evaluation Operators," in Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Self Managing Database Systems (SMDB2012, In conjunction with ICDE 2012). (pdf)

Rui Zhang, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Saumya Debray, "Micro-Specialization in DBMSes," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), April 2012. (pdf)

Rui Zhang, Saumya Debray, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Micro-Specialization: Dynamic Code Specialization of Database Management Systems," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Code Generation and Optimization (CGO), March 2012. (pdf)


Ergalics: The Science of Computer Science

Young Suh, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Rui Zhang, "AZDBLab: A Laboratory Information System for a Large-Scale Empirical Study," (Demo) Proceedings of Very Large Databases 7(13):1611-1614, September, 2014. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass and Peter Denning, "The Science of Computer Science: Closing Statement," ACM Ubiquity Symposium, 11 pages, June 2014. (pdf)

Thomas Matheson, Abhijit Saha, Richard T. Snodgrass, John Kececioglu, Gautham Narayan, Robert Seaman, Tim Jennes, and Tim Axelrod, "ANTARES: A Prototype Transient Broker System,"Proc. SPIE 9149, Observatory Operations: Strategies, Processes, and Systems V, 914908 (July 28, 2014); abstracted in American Astronomical Meeting Abstracts, 223, #343.02, 2014. (pdf)

Thomas Matheson, Abhijit Saha, Richard T. Snodgrass, and John Kececioglu, "ANTARES: The Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System," in Hot-Wiring the Transient Universe 3, P. Wozniak, M. Graham, and A. Mahabal (eds.), 2014. (pdf)

Clay Morrison and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Computer Science Can Use More Science," in Communications of the ACM, Vol. 54, Issue 7, June 2011, pp. 36-38. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Towards a Science of Temporal Databases," Keynote Address, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning, Alicante, Spain, V. Goranko and X. Sean Wang (ed), pages 6–7, June 2007. (pdf)


Monitoring Distributed Systems

David Ogle, Karsten Schwan, and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Application-Dependent Dynamic Monitoring of Real-Time Distributed and Parallel Systems," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 4(7), July 1993, pp. 762–778. (pdf) Reprinted in Monitoring and Debugging of Distributed Real-Time Systems, J. J. P. Tsai and S. J. H. Yang, editors, IEEE Press, January 1995, pp. 339–355.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Relational Approach to Monitoring Complex Systems," ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 6(2), May 1988, pp. 157–196. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Monitoring in a Software Development Environment: A Relational Approach," In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Practical Software Development Environments, Pittsburgh, PA, April 1984, pp. 124–131. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Monitoring Multiprocessors: A Relational Approach," Workshop on Multiprocessors for High Performance Parallel Computation, Seven Springs, PA, June 1983, 6 pages.

Zary Segall, A. Singh, Richard T. Snodgrass, Anita Jones, and Daniel Siewiorek,, "An Integrated Instrumentation Environment," IEEE Transactions on Computers C-32(4), January 1983, pp. 4–14. (pdf) Reprinted in Parallel Processing, the Cm* Experience, by E. F. Gehringer, D. Siewiorek, and Z. Segall, Digital Press, 1987, pp. 207–222.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Monitoring Distributed Systems: A Relational Approach," Ph.D. Dissertation. Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University, December 1982. Available as Technical Report CMU-CS-82-154.


Software Development Environments

Richard T. Snodgrass and K. Shannon, "Fine Grained Data Management to Achieve Evolution Resilience in a Software Development Environment," In Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Software Development Environments, Irvine, CA, December 1990, pp. 144–156. (pdf) Reprinted in Sizing Up Software Development Environments: Readings in SDE Research from the Standpoint of Scale Dewayne W. Perry and Gail E. Kaiser, eds, Oxford University Press, Inc, 1994.

Karen P. Shannon and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Semantic Clustering in a Persistent Object Store," In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Persistent Object Systems: Design, Implementation, and Use, Martha's Vineyard, MA, September 1990. (pdf) Reprinted in Implementing Persistent Object Bases: Principles and Practice edited by Alan Dearle, Gail M. Shaw, and Stanley B. Zdonik, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1991, pp. 389–402.

Karen P. Shannon and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Mapping the Interface Description Language Type Model into C," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 15(11), November 1989, pp. 1333–1346. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass and Karen P. Shannon, "Type Extension in IDL," in Proceedings of the Federal CASE Conference on Integrated Data Management for Software Engineering, Gaithersburg, MD, November 1989, 17 pages.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Bottom-up Approach to Software CAD Databases," In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD Workshop on Software CAD Databases, Napa, CA, February 1989, pp. 127–135.

Daniel Hoffman and Richard T. Snodgrass, "Trace Specifications: Methodology and Models," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 14(9), September 1988, pp. 1243–1252. (pdf)

Warren, W. B., J. Kickenson, and R. T. Snodgrass, "A Tutorial Introduction to IDL," SIGPlan Notices, Special Issue on IDL, 22(11):18–34, November 1987. (pdf)

R. T. Snodgrass, "Displaying IDL Instances," SIGPlan Notices, Special Issue on IDL, 22(11):10–17, November 1987. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass and Karen P. Shannon, "Supporting Flexible and Efficient Tool Integration," In Advanced Programming Environments: Proceedings of an International Workshop, R. Conradi, T. M. Didriksen, and D. H. Wanvik, Eds, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 244, Springer-Verlag, June 1986, pp. 290–313.


Scholarly Publication

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Editorial: Single- Versus Double-Blind Reviewing," ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 32(1), article 1, 31 pages, March, 2007. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Frequently-Asked Questions About Double-Blind Reviewing," ACM SIGMOD Record, 36(1):60–62, March 2007, 3 pages. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Single- Versus Double-Blind Reviewing: An Analysis of the Literature," ACM SIGMOD Record, 35(3):8–21, September 2006. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "CMM and ACM TODS," ACM SIGMOD Record, 34(3):114–117, September 2005. (pdf)

Philip A. Bernstein, Elisa Bertino, Andreas Heuer, Christian S. Jensen, Holger Meyer, M. Tamer Özsu, Richard T. Snodgrass, and Kyu-Young Whang, "An Apples-to-Apples Comparison of Two Database Journals," ACM SIGMOD Record 34(4):61–64, December, 2005. (pdf

Philip A. Bernstein, David DeWitt, Andreas Heuer, Zachary Ives, Christian S. Jensen, Holger Meyer, M. Tamer Özsu, Richard T. Snodgrass, Kyu-Young Whang, and Jennifer Widom, "Database Publication Practices," in Proceedings of the VLDB Conference, Trondheim, Norway, September 2005, 5 pages. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "TODS Special Issues," SIGMOD Record, 33(1):5–6, March 2004. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Journal Relevance," SIGMOD Record, 31(3):11–15, September 2003.(pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "ACM TODS in this Internet Age," SIGMOD Record, 32(1):4–5, March 2003.(pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Progress on ACM's Becoming the Preferred Publisher," Communications of the ACM 45(2):97–101, Feb 2002. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Rights of TODS Readers, Authors and Reviewers," ACM SIGMOD Record, 31(4):5–9, December 2002. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "TODS Perceptions and Misconceptions," ACM SIGMOD Record, 31(3):6–8, September 2002.(pdf)


Other Topics

Serge Abiteboul, Rakesh Agrawal, Phil Berstein, Mike Carey, Stefano Ceri, Bruce Croft, David DeWitt, Mike Franklin, Hector Garcia Molina, Dieter Gawlick, Jim Gray, Laura Haas, Alon Halevy, Joe Hellerstein, Yannis Ioannidis, Martin Kersten, Michael Pazzani, Mike Lesk, David Maier, Jeff Naughton, Hans Schek, Timos Selis, Avi Silberschatz, Mike Stonebraker, Rick Snodgrass, Jeff Ullman, Gerhard Weikum, Jennifer Widom, and Stan Zdonik, "The Lowell Database Research Self-Assessment," CACM 48(5):111–118, May 2005. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass and Merrie L. Brucks, "Branding Yourself," ACM SIGMOD Record 33(2):117–125, June 2004. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Why I Like Working in Academia," SIGMOD Record 31(1):118–121, March 2002. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "The Inefficiency of Misalignment," ACM Computing Surveys 28(4es), Article 89, December 1996. (html)

Avi Silberschatz, Stanley Zdonik, José Blakeley, Peter Buneman, Umeshwar Dayal, Timos Imielinski, Sushil Jajodia, Hank Korth, Guy Lohman, David Lomet, David Maier, Frank Manola, Timos Özsu, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Krithi Ramamritham, Hans Schek, Richard T. Snodgrass, Jeff Ullman, and Jennifer Widom, "Strategic Directions in Database Systems—Breaking Out of the Box," ACM Computing Surveys 28(4):764–778, December 1996. (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "An Object-Oriented Command Language," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-9(1), January 1983, pp. 1–8. (pdf) Reprinted in Tutorial: Object-Oriented Computing by G. E. Peterson, Vol. 2, Computer Society Press, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. 251–258.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "A Sophisticated Microcomputer User Interface," In Proceedings of the Third Symposium of Small Systems, Palo Alto, CA, September 1980, pp. 97–107. (pdf)


Articles in Database Programming and Design

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Managing Temporal Data: A Five-Part Series," TimeCenter TR-28, September, 1998 (pdf)

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Support in Standard SQL," 11(10):44–48, October 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Transaction-Time State Tables," 11(9):46–50, September 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Modifying Valid-time State Tables," 11(8):72–77, August 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Querying Valid-time State Tables," 11(7):60–65, July 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Of Duplicates and Septuplets,"11(6):46–49, June 1998.


Articles in Database Programming and Design Online

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Sequenced Modifications," February 1999.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Current Modifications of Time-Varying Tables," January 1999.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Modifying Time-Varying Tables," December 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Temporal Coalescing," November 1998.

Richard T. Snodgrass, "Referential Integrity over Time-Varying Tables," October 1998.

Database Programming and Design Code Samples


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